Teaching Terms

An ongoing list of teaching terms that I plan to periodically update and revise.

Teaching Terms

Teaching Terms

  1. Academic Controversy
  2. Active listening
  3. Advance organizers
  4. Affective goals
  5. Analysis questions
  6. Application questions
  7. Authentic assessment
  8. Authentic questions
  9. Classroom management
  10. Comprehension questions
  11. Concept mapping
  12. Constructivist theorist
  13. Content knowledge
  14. Content validity
  15. Convergent thinking
  16. Cooperative learning
  17. Curriculum – many different definitions and types (ideological, formal (intended), perceived, operational (taught), experienced, historical, hidden (implicity attitudes, ideas, social values, not acutally tuaght or talked about even as teacher goals example is students learning to falsify behavior for a classroom reward system, coping with waiting periods, crowds, praise, power in classroom). Curriculum goals focus on mandates, student personal development and continued learning skills, expectations of parents and society, honor of diversity, lifelike and lively, general education, democratic, social and personal significance. Curriculum models include integrated, multidisciplinary (no blending), and Interdisciplinary (activities content areas truly blended), Sequence model (teachers all have theme of maybe middle ages) Shared model (teachers from different subjects focus on overlapping concepts such as cycles in science and language art, life cycle, flow charts) Threaded model (good if topics do not overlap well for teachers of different subjects, may have thinking skill of cause and effect, team teaching checklist, statistics in math class, current events social studies, effects air pollution science, language arts diary of Ann Frank effect on family) Webbed model (central idea of for example change and used in different content areas
  18. Desist behaviors – teacher attempts to stop student misbehavior
  19. Differentiated instruction – working with students at their individual levels. maximizes what they learn, opportunities suited to different levels and backgrounds, interests, personalities, needs, etc.
  20. Differentiating questions – diverse questions by the teacher that incorporate different learning styles, interests, skill levels etc.
  21. Divergent thinking – when question may be so open students arrive at many different conclusions
  22. Effective teacher – able to deliver intended learning outcomes
  23. Inclusion – usually refers to integrating children with disabilities into the regular education classroom
  24. Individual Education Plan (IEP) – plan written for each student with a disability, required by Public law 94-142

Cognitive Development Theorists

  • Jean Piaget – stage theory – over 11 years old able to combine variables and testing outcomes
    • he was biologist, and not interested in cognitive development, interested in clams/mollushs, published 30 times by 16, scientist, got married had children, no nanny, took daugher to lab and took notes, saw same development pattern with second child and started to see similarities, curious wanted to see if with all children, went back to school, doctorate child studies
    • four stages – sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational
    • concrete operations (age 7-11) conservation, seriation, classification, number concept, last of two stages of young adult, tasks could not do in other two previous stages, conservation (beaker, tall and skinny, short and fat, age 7 realized same) seriation (order, patterns, sequences understanding math class) classification (classify way in more sophisticated, not visual internal characteristics) Number concept (operation number in different ways, 12 minutes counting to 60 twelve times in a row)
    • formal operations (over 11 years old) – separate real from the possible (e.g. careers, everyone wanted to be a NBA basketball player in 5th grade, younger children unable do this) – propositional thinking (students test, analyze think about in abstract ways, propositions) – combining variables and testing outcomes (realize should think of another career besides NBA basketball player, be realistic) – wide range may start at 13
    • assimiliation, accomodation, equilibrium, brain/body (senses) collects information and is able to assimilate information or find difficult to process, new and shocking information is accomodated e.g. more truthful events of Columbus
  • Lev Vygotsky – psychiatrist early USSR 1930s and 1920s, worked is Moscow, huge country, Stalin dictator, very multi-cultural city, center of the world, centralized all different peoples in Parliament in Moscow, Arabic, Asian, Balkan, communism, Russians didn’t like different languages, peoples, other children considered stupid, Vygotsky thought are the kids really dumb? language development and culture big, Moscow boom town, new buildings, saw the workers with scaffolding and thought like for learning with children, older need less scaffolding more independent, Zone of proximal development (ZPD) ability and where at and teach just a little harder material than where at, but still capable, Scaffolding (inspired by building all around in Moscow) 1920s arguing individual learning styles, 1970s, 80s leaked out of USSR, began to fall
  • Erikson – industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, 8 psycho-social crisis in lifetime, 6 categories
    • Search for identity – adult values are cemented for life, moral reasoning, reasonable reciprocate kindness, by age 14 able to put selves in others shoes
      • Exploratory courses – Exploration: the total curriculum. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association Compton, M.F. & Hawn, H.C. 1993
    • Dependence/Independence – in middle school want to make own choices, still strongly dependent on parents but rebellious toward parents, challenge authority figures, more of pulling away from parents than rebelliousness, questioning if authority figures are acceptable or unacceptable, why learn certain material, age 13 start to understand humor, wit and sarcasm, adolescents become comedians
    • Egocentricism – young adults easily offended and sensitive to criticism, critique their performance with caution can harm their delicate self-esteem and self-conscious which tends to e low, tend to exaggerate their small problems and believe unique to self, want world to revolve around themselves, ZITS comic illustrates egocentric-ism of young adult Jeremy, imaginary audience (Elkind) young adults believe world is watching them all the time, convinced everyone saw them/laughing at them, pantomime in front of mirror, tend to have unfocused eyes, schools can provide opportunities for self-exploration and self-definition
      • young adults like to make own choices, have them pick own projects, vote on fieldtrip choices, choice in service learning projects, lunch menu
    • Sex role issues – search for ways to set up positive social relationships with members of same and opposite sex, begin to treat each other differently, going steady, may have boyfriend/girlfriend but only in title do not do much, at friendship level, jealousies, look to define sex roles
    • Concerned with peer perceptions – friendships formed in middle school can last a lifetime, before middle school friends made by proximity, in middle school discover have different interests, intensity of old friendships decreases, young adults sort selves out as jocks, goths etc., hassels with those who don’t fit into their group, very loyal to peer group values, sometimes cruel and insenstive to those outside peer group, refer to peers for standards and models of behavior such as hairstyle and speech, media and sports heros become important models of behavior
      • teachers can diversify grouping, not always grouping the smart kids together, young adults need diversity and not always teaching out of the textbook,
    • Concerned with adult perceptions – about age ten must gain adults approval, perceive adults telling them incompetent think of self as inferior, 4/5 grade gangs fulfill need to feel competent, really want adult acceptance, rejection by adults leads to deeper peer relationships, important adults maintain good relationships with young adults, stressful if have conflicting family and friend values, moving is traumatic, new school settings are large and impersonalable and cause fear, schools can foster community involvement with student government, recognition of student success, service projects, positive social interactions such as low stress social events, advisor-advisee programs, nights with games, sock-hops, intramurals
      • Advisor-advisee programs – Taking the Lead in Implemention and Improving advisory. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association, Cowstails and cobras: A Guide to games, initiatives, ropes courses & adventure curriculum Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. 1989 Karl Rohnke, example advisory activities (student of the day/week, silent reading/writing, career exploration, goal-setting, magic circle, puzzle or joke or riddle of the day, school clubs)

Assessment Terms

  • Achievement tests – IOWA CA, ISAT IL, scores given meaning by comparison with norms
  • Ability tests – innate ability, IQ tests
  • Formative Evaluation – during, regular teachers use, most learning is occuring during course of instruction quiz, homework
  • Summative evaluation – happens at end of instruction
  • Placement evaluation – before instruction ever begins
  • Diagnostic evaluation – during instruction when problem detected
  • Norm-references measurement of assessment – comparison with a group, letter grades are norm-references, normal curve, math model
  • Criterion-referenced – only with a child did in relation to criterion, standard, benchmark
  • Reliability – measures consistency same way every time same score each time and every time
  • Validity – measures what they say and are supposed to measure, not all reliable measures are valid
  • Teacher standards – INTASC (Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium – knowledge, dispositions, attitudes, performance) IPTS (Illinois Professional Teaching Standards, 11th standard professionalism) National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS, nationwide, 3 yrs teaching experience, 5 propositions, expensive fee, year long process, bank parts of it, master certificate good for ten years as opposed to five years)
  • Traditional Assessment – paper-pencil, multiple choice, true/false, matching etc)
  • Alternative Assessment – non-traditional, constructivist, cognitive, interactive, constructed response, portfolio, exhibitions, essay, performance etc
  • Performance – perform task or activity to meet objective
  • Authentic – real world application activity


  1. Plessy v. Ferguson – 1895 U.S. Supreme Court separate but equal ruling, 14th Amendment (added to the Constitution in 1868 emphasizing equality stating, “no state shall…deny to any person….equal protection of the laws”) could allow for segregated education based on race if schools were equal, shows race as a social and legal element as 1790 Naturalization Law limited citizenship to free white persons
  2. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka – (1954) declares even if exactly the same if schools are racially segregated they are not equal, school segregation declared unconstitutional
  3. Civil Rights Act – passed by Congress in 1964 and by Title VI required withholding federal funds from institutions that practice discrimination
  4. Title IX Higher Education Act (1972) – gender discrimination not permitted in educational programs, 1975 federal gender discrimination regulations in sports ended
  5. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) – 1990 name changed from Public Law 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) amendments made to IDEA in 1997, 2002 President’s Commission Report: Revitalizing Special Education for Children and Their Families
  6. Oliver v. Michigan State Board of Education (1974) – outlined requirements to prove segregation
  7. Takao Ozawa v. United States (1922) – Court rejected citizenship and did not define white according to skin color
  8. United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind – Court rejected citizenship to immigrant from India filing as a Caucasian and on filing of Caucasian and dismissed Caucasian as a term for white persons
  9. Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania – PARC gave great case for educability of children with disabilities with help of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and the state did not permit children with disabilities to be denied an education
  10. Oberti v. Board of Education of the Borough of Clementon School District – ruled people with disabilities given equal access any agency receiving federal money including public schools
  11. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 – Title I – Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged – requires children with disabilities to test in state tests but test may be slightly altered for instance a blind student may not be able to answer graph questions on a math portion of the test and may need a person to read parts of the test to them
  12. 2002 Commission of Excellence in Special Education – found many students were in special education because of poor reading skills and allowed parents with kids in failing schools to receive vouchers to transfer them to another school public or private.
  13. Mendez et al. v. Westminster School District of Orange County – ruled against segregation of Mexican Americans

Published by SewIsabel

Spare-time aspiring fiber artist, gardener, beekeeper and sew much more! Author of SewIsabel.com.

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